Statement of Faith

We believe*:

  • The Bible, as it was originally given, is the inspired and infallible word of God, and that it is the supreme authority on all matters of faith and practice.
  • There is one true God, who has eternally existed in three persons, namely, The Father, The Son and the Holy Spirit.
  • Humans are fallen in nature, rendering all people guilty of transgressing God’s perfect law and are therefore subject to condemnation.
  • Christ Jesus was both fully God and fully man and was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the virgin Mary.
  • Christ Jesus, after living a perfect and sinless life, died a representative and substitutionary death making propitiation for sin and providing atonement for all His people
  • Salvation is through faith in Christ Jesus alone.
  • Christ Jesus was raised bodily, ascended into heaven and now sits at the right hand of God the Father making intercession for His people.
  • The regeneration of the Holy Spirit is necessary in the life of an individual to bring them to faith and repentance.
  • The Holy Spirit indwells the believer.
  • Christ Jesus will return in person to judge the living and the dead and will make a new heaven and earth.

*For a more comprehensive confession of faith please see the Baptist Confession of Faith (1689) below.





The Baptist Confession of Faith (1689)


The Holy Scriptures
God and the Holy Trinity
God’s Decree
Divine Providence
The Fall of Man, Sin and Punishment
God’s Covenant
Christ the Mediator
Free Will
Effectual Calling
Saving Faith
Repentance and Salvation
Good Works
The Perseverance of the Saints
Assurance of Salvation
The Law of God
The Gospel and Its Influence
Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience
Worship and the Sabbath Day
Lawful Oaths and Vows
The Civil Magistrate
The Church
The Communion of Saints
Baptism and the Lord’s Supper
The Lord’s Supper
Man’s State After Death and the Resurrection
The Last Judgement

1. The Holy Scriptures

The Holy Scripture is the only sufficient, certain, and infallible rule of
all saving knowledge, faith, and obedience. Although the light of
nature and the works of creation and providence manifest the goodness,
wisdom, and power of God so much that man is left without any excuse,
they are not sufficient to provide that knowledge of God and His will
which is necessary for salvation.
Therefore it pleased the Lord at sundry times and in divers manners to reveal Himself, and to declare His will to His church;

and afterward, for the better preserving and propagating of the truth,
and for the more sure establishment and comfort of the church,
protecting it against the corruption of the flesh and the malice of
Satan and the world,
– it pleased the Lord to commit His revealed
Truth wholly to writing. Therefore the Holy Scriptures are most
necessary, those former ways by which God revealed His will unto His
people having now ceased.
Under the title of Holy Scripture (or
the written Word of God) are now contained all the following books of
the Old and New Testament:-
Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 &
2 Samuel, 1 & 2 Kings, 1 & 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah,
Esther, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Isaiah,
Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah,
Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.
Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Acts, Romans. 1
& 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, l
& 2 Thessalonians, 1 & 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews,
James, 1 & 2 Peter, 1, 2 & 3 John, Jude, Revelation.

All these books are given by the inspiration of God to be the rule of faith and life.
books commonly called ‘The Apocrypha’ not being of divine inspiration,
are not part of the canon or rule of Scripture and are therefore of no
authority to the church of God, nor are they to be approved of or made
use of any differently from other human writings.
The authority of
the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed, depends not on
the testimony of any man or church, but wholly upon God its Author (Who
is Truth itself). Therefore it is to be received because it is the Word
of God.
We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the people
of God to gain a high and reverent estimation of the Holy Scriptures.
We may be similarly affected by the nature of the Scriptures—the
heavenliness of the contents, the efficacy of the doctrine, the majesty
of the style, the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole,
which is to give all glory to God, the full disclosure it makes of the
only way of man’s salvation, together with many other incomparable
excellencies and entire perfections. By all the evidence the Scripture
more than proves itself to be the Word of God. Yet, notwithstanding
this, our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth of
Scripture and its divine authority, is from the inward work of the Holy
Spirit bearing witness by and with the Word in our hearts.
whole counsel of God concerning all things necessary for His own glory,
man’s salvation, faith and life, is either expressly set down or
necessarily contained in the Holy Scripture, to which nothing is to be
added at any time, either by new revelation of the Spirit, or by the
traditions of men. Nevertheless, we acknowledge the inward illumination
of the Spirit of God to be necessary for the saving understanding of
such things as are revealed in the Word.
There are some
circumstances concerning the worship of God and church government which
are common to human actions and societies, which are to be ordered by
the light of nature and Christian prudence, according to the general
rules of the Word which are always to be observed.
All things in
scripture are not equally plain in themselves, nor equally clear to
everyone, yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed
and observed for salvation, are so clearly propounded and revealed in
some place of Scripture or other, that not only the educated but also
the uneducated may attain a sufficient understanding of them by the due
use of ordinary means.
The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the
native language of the people of God of old), and the New Testament in
Greek (which at the time of its writing was most generally known to the
nations) were immediately inspired by God, and were kept pure through
subsequent ages by His singular care and providence. They are therefore
authentic , so that in all controversies of religion , the church must
appeal to them as final. But because these original tongues are not
known to all the people of God who have a right to, and an interest in
the Scriptures, and who are commanded to read and search them in the
fear of God, the Scriptures are therefore to be translated into the
ordinary language of every nation into which they come, so that, with
the Word of God living richly in all, people may worship God in an
acceptable manner, and through patience and comfort of the Scriptures
may have hope.
The infallible rule for the interpretation of
Scripture is the Scripture itself, and therefore whenever there is a
question about the true and full sense of any scripture (which is not
manifold, but one), it must be searched by other passages which speak
more clearly.
The supreme judge, by which all controversies of
religion are to be determined, and by which must be examined all
decrees of councils, opinions of ancient writers, and doctrines of men
and private spirits can be no other than the Holy Scripture, delivered
by the Spirit. And in the sentence of Scripture we are to rest, for it
is in Scripture, delivered by the Spirit, that our faith is finally
Back to Top

2. God and the Holy Trinity

Lord our God is the one and only living and true God; Whose subsistence
is in and of Himself – Who is infinite in being and perfection; Whose
essence cannot be comprehended by any but Himself;
– Who is a most pure spirit, invisible, without body, parts, or passions
– Who only has immortality

Who dwells in the light which no man can approach, Who is immutable,
immense, eternal, incomprehensible, almighty, in every way infinite,
most holy, most wise, most free, most absolute;
– Who works all things according to the counsel of His own immutable and most righteous will, for His own glory;
– Who is most loving, gracious, merciful, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth;
– Who forgives iniquity, transgression, and sin;
– Who is the rewarder of those who diligently seek Him;

and Who, at the same time, is most just and terrible in His judgements,
hating all sin and Who will by no means clear the guilty.
having all life, glory, goodness, blessedness, in and from Himself, is
unique in being all- sufficient, both in Himself and to Himself, not
standing in need of any creature which He has made, nor deriving any
glory from such. – On the contrary, it is God Who manifests His own
glory in them, through them, to them and upon them. He is the only
fountain of all being; from Whom, through Whom, and to Whom all things
exist and move.
– He has completely sovereign dominion over all creatures, to do through them, for them, or to them whatever He pleases.
– In His sight all things are open and manifest; His knowledge is infinite, infallible, and not dependant on the creature.
– Therefore, nothing is for Him contingent or uncertain.
– He is most holy in all His counsels, in all His works, and in all His commands.

To Him is due from angels and men whatever worship, service, or
obedience, they owe as creatures to the Creator, and whatever else He
is pleased to require from them.
In this divine and infinite Being
there are three subsistences, the Father, the Word or Son, and the Holy
Spirit. All are one in substance, power, and eternity; each having the
whole divine essence, yet this essence being undivided. The Father was
not derived from any other being; He was neither brought into being by,
nor did He issue from any other being.
– The Son is eternally begotten of the Father.
– The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.

All three are infinite, without beginning, and are therefore only one
God, Who is not to be divided in nature and being, but distinguished by
several peculiar relative properties, and also their personal
– This doctrine of the Trinity is the foundation of all our communion with God, and our comfortable dependence on Him.
Back to Top

3. God’s Decree

has decreed in Himself from all eternity, by the most wise and holy
counsel of His own will, freely and unchangeably, all things which
shall ever come to pass. – Yet in such a way that God is neither the
author of sin nor does He have fellowship with any in the committing of
sins, nor is violence offered to the will of the creature , nor yet is
the liberty or contingency of second causes taken away, but rather
– In all this God’s wisdom is displayed, disposing all things, and also His power and faithfulness in accomplishing His decree.
God knows everything which may or can come to pass under all imaginable
conditions, yet He has not decreed anything because He foresaw it in
the future, or because it would come to pass under certain conditions.
the decree of God, for the manifestation of His glory, some men and
angels are predestinated or foreordained to eternal life through Jesus
Christ, to the praise of His glorious grace. Others are left to act in
their sin to their just condemnation, to the praise of His glorious
Those angels and men thus predestinated and foreordained,
are particularly and unchangeably designed, and the number of them is
so certain and definite, that it cannot be either increased or
Those of mankind who are predestinated to life, God
chose before the foundation of the world was laid, in accordance with
His eternal and immutable purpose and the secret counsel and good
pleasure of His will. God chose them in Christ for everlasting glory,
solely out of His free grace and love, without anything in the creature
as a condition or cause moving Him to choose.
As God has appointed
the elect unto glory, so, by the eternal and completely free intention
of His will, He has foreordained all the means. Accordingly, those who
are elected, being fallen in Adam: – are redeemed by Christ,
– are effectually called to faith in Christ by His Spirit working in due season,
– are justified, adopted, sanctified,
– and are kept by His power through faith unto salvation;
– neither are any but the elect redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved.
doctrine of this high mystery of predestination is to be handled with
special prudence and care, in order that men who are heeding the will
of God revealed in His Word, and who are yielding obedience to it, may,
from the certainty of their effectual vocation be assured of their
eternal election. So shall this doctrine provide cause for praise,
reverence, admiration of God, and also provide cause for humility,
diligence, and abundant consolation to all who sincerely obey the
Back to Top

4. Creation

the beginning it pleased God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, for the
manifestation of the glory of His eternal power, wisdom, and goodness,
to create or make the world and all things in it both visible and
invisible, in the space of six days, and all very good.
After God
had made all other creatures, He created man, male and female, with
reasoning and immortal souls, rendering them fit to live that life for
Him for which they were created; – being made in the image of God, in
knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness; having the law of God
written in their hearts, and having the power to fulfil it;
– and yet living under a possibility of transgressing, being left to the liberty of their own will which was subject to change.
the law written in their hearts, they received a command not to eat of
the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. While they kept this
command they were happy in their communion with God, and had dominion
over all other creatures.
Back to Top

5. Divine Providence

the good Creator of all things, in His infinite power and wisdom,
upholds, directs, disposes and governs all creatures and things, from
the greatest to the least, by His most wise and holy providence, to the
end for which they were created. – God governs according to His
infallible foreknowledge and the free and unchanging counsel of His own
– for the praise of the glory of His wisdom, power, justice, boundless goodness, and mercy.
in relation to the foreknowledge and decree of God, Who is the First
Cause, all things come to pass immutably and infallibly; so that
nothing happens to anyone by chance, or outside His providence, yet by
His providence He orders events to occur according to the nature of
second causes, either necessarily, freely, or contingently.
God, in His ordinary providence makes use of means, yet He is free to work outside, above, and against them at His pleasure.
almighty power, unsearchable wisdom, and infinite goodness of God so
far manifest themselves in His providence, that His determinate counsel
extends even to the first fall, and all other sinful actions of both
angels and men. – This is not merely by a bare permission, but by a
form of permission in which He included the most wise and powerful
limitations, and other means of restricting and controlling sin. These
various limitations have been designed by God to bring about his most
holy purposes.
– Yet, in all these affairs, the sinfulness of both
angels and men comes only from them and not from God, Who is altogether
holy and righteous, and can never be the author or approver of sin.
most wise, righteous, and gracious God often leaves, for a time, His
own children to various temptations, and to the corruptions of their
own hearts, in order to chastise them for the sins which they have
committed, or to show them the hidden strength of corruption and
deceitfulness still in their hearts, so that they may be humbled and
aroused to a more close and constant dependence upon Himself for their
support, and that they may be made more watchful against future
occasions of sin. Other just and holy objectives are also served by
such action by God. Therefore whatever happens to any of His select is
by His appointment, for His glory, and for their good.
As for
those wicked and ungodly men whom God as a righteous judge, blinds and
hardens for former sin, from them He not only withholds His grace, by
which they might have been enlightened in their understanding and
affected in their hearts, but sometimes He also withdraws the gifts
which they had and exposes them to certain objects which their corrupt
state will make the occasion of sin. – God gives them over to their own
lusts, the temptations of the world, and the power of Satan, so that
eventually they harden themselves under the same influences which God
uses for the softening of others.
As the providence of God in
general reaches to all creatures, so, in a more special manner, it
takes care of His church, and governs all things to the good of His
Back to Top

6. The Fall of Man, Sin and Punishment

God created man upright and perfect, and gave him a righteous law,
which secured life for him while he kept it, and although God warned
him that he would die if he broke it, yet man did not live long in this
honour. – Satan using the subtlety of the serpent to subdue Eve,
seduced Adam by her, and he, without any compulsion, wilfully
transgressed the law of their creation and the command given to them by
eating the forbidden fruit.
– And this act God, according to His
wise and holy counsel, was pleased to permit, having purposed to order
it to His own glory.
Our first parents, by this sin, fell from
their original righteousness and communion with God, and we in them.
For from this, death came upon all: all becoming dead in sin and wholly
defiled in all the faculties and parts of soul and body.
being the root, and by God’s appointment, standing in the room and
stead of all mankind, the guilt of this sin was imputed, and their
corrupted nature conveyed, to all their posterity descending from them
by ordinary generation. Their descendants are therefore conceived in
sin, and are by nature the children of wrath, the servants of sin, and
the subjects of death and all other miseries, spiritual, temporal, and
eternal, unless the Lord Jesus sets them free.
All actual
transgressions proceed from this original corruption, by which we are
utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite to all good, and wholly
inclined to all evil.
During this life the corruption of nature
remains in those who are regenerated, and although it is pardoned and
mortified through Christ, yet this corrupt nature and all its motions
are truly and properly sinful.
Back to Top

7. God’s Covenant

distance between God and the creature is so great, that although
reasonable creatures do owe obedience to Him as their Creator, yet they
could never have attained the reward of life except by some voluntary
condescension on God’s part, and this He has been pleased to express in
the form of a covenant.
Moreover, as man had brought himself under
the curse of the law by his fall, it pleased the Lord to make a
covenant of grace. In this covenant He freely offers to sinners life
and salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring from them faith in Him that
they may be saved, and promising to give to all who are appointed to
eternal life His Holy Spirit to make them willing and able to believe.
covenant is revealed through the Gospel; first of all to Adam in the
promise of salvation by the seed of the woman, and afterwards by
further steps until the full revelation of it became complete in the
New Testament. The covenant of salvation rests upon an eternal covenant
transaction between the Father and the Son about the redemption of the
elect. It is solely by the grace of this covenant that all the
descendants of fallen Adam who have ever been saved have obtained life
and blessed immortality, because man is now utterly incapable of
gaining acceptance with God on the terms by which Adam stood in his
state of innocency.
Back to Top

8. Christ the Mediator

pleased God, in His eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the Lord
Jesus, His only begotten Son, in accordance with the covenant made
between them both, to be the Mediator between God and man; to be
Prophet, Priest, and King, the Head and Saviour of His Church, the Heir
of all things, and the Judge of all the world. To the Lord Jesus He
gave, from all eternity, a people to be His seed. These, in time, would
be redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified by the Lord
The Son of God, the second person in the Holy Trinity,
being true and eternal God, the brightness of the Father’s glory, of
the same substance and equal with Him; – Who made the world, and Who
upholds and governs all things which He has made,
– did, when the
fullness of time had come, take upon Himself man’s nature, with all its
essential properties and common infirmities, with the exception of sin.

– He was conceived by the Holy Spirit in the womb of the Virgin
Mary, the Holy Spirit coming down upon her and the power of the Most
High overshadowing her, so that He was born to a woman from the tribe
of Judah, a descendant of Abraham and David, in accordance with the
– Thus two whole, perfect and distinct natures were
inseparably joined together in one person, without conversion,
composition, or confusion;
– So that the Lord Jesus Christ is truly God and truly man, yet He is one Christ, the only Mediator between God and man.
Lord Jesus, His human nature thus united to the divine, once in the
person of the Son, was sanctified and anointed with the Holy Spirit
above measure, having in Himself all the treasures of wisdom and
knowledge. It pleased the Father that all fullness should dwell in Him
so that, being holy, harmless, undefiled, and full of grace and truth,
He might be thoroughly furnished to execute the office of a Mediator
and Surety, a position and duty which He did not take upon Himself, but
was called to perform by His Father. And the Father also put all power
and judgement in His hand, and gave Him commandment to exercise the
This office and duty of Mediator and Surety the Lord Jesus
undertook most willingly. To discharge it, He was made under the law,
and perfectly fulfilled it, and He underwent the punishment due to us,
which we should have borne and suffered. He was made sin and was made a
curse for us; enduring the most grevous sorrows in His Soul with the
most painful sufferings in His duty. He was crucified, and died, and
remained in the state of the dead, but His body did not undergo any
decomposition. On the third day He rose from the dead with the same
body in which He had suffered, with which He also ascended into Heaven,
and there sits at the right hand of His Father making intercession, and
shall return to judge men and angels at the end of the world.
Lord Jesus, by His perfect obedience and sacrifice of Himself which He,
through the eternal Spirit, once offered up to God, has fully satisfied
the justice of God, has procured reconciliation, and has purchased an
everlasting inheritance in the kingdom of Heaven for all those whom the
Father has given to Him.
Although the price of redemption was not
actually paid by Christ until after His incarnation yet the virtue,
efficacy, and benefit arising from His payment were communicated to the
elect in all ages from the beginning of the world through those
promises, types, and sacrifices in which He was revealed and signified
as the seed which should bruise the serpent’s head, and also the Lamb
slain from the foundation of the world, for He is the same yesterday,
and today, and forever.
Christ, in His work of Mediator, acts
according to both natures, each nature doing that which is proper to
itself. Yet, because of the unity of His person, that which is proper
to one nature is sometimes in Scripture attributed to the person
denominated by the other nature.
To all those for whom Christ has
obtained eternal redemption, He certainly and effectually applies and
communicates this redemption, making intercession for them, uniting
them to Himself by His Spirit, revealing to them in the Word and by the
Word the mystery of salvation. He persuades them to believe and obey,
governing their hearts by His Word and Spirit, and overcome all their
enemies by His almighty power and wisdom. This is achieved in such a
manner and by such ways as are most consonant to His wonderful and
unsearchable dispensation, and it is all by free and absolute grace,
without any condition foreseen in them to procure it.
This office
of Mediator between God and man is proper only to Christ, Who is the
Prophet, Priest, and King of the Church. Free Will of God, and this
office may not be transferred from Him to any other, either in whole or
in part.
This number and order of offices is essential. Because of
our ignorance we need His prophetic office. Because of our alienation
from God and the imperfection of the best of our service, we need His
priestly office to reconcile us and present us to God as acceptable.
Because of our aversion to, and utter inability to return to God, and
for our rescue and keeping from spiritual enemies, we need His kingly
office to convince, subdue, draw, uphold, deliver, and preserve us
until we reach His heavenly kingdom.
Back to Top

9. Free Will

has indued the will of man, by nature, with liberty and the power to
choose and to act upon his choice. This free will is neither forced,
nor destined by any necessity of nature to do good or evil.
in his state of innocency, had freedom and power to will and to do that
which was good and well-pleasing to God, but he was unstable, so that
he might fall from this condition.
Man, by his fall into a state
of sin, has completely lost all ability of will to perform any of the
spiritual good which accompanies salvation. As a natural man, he is
altogether averse to spiritual good, and dead in sin. He is not able by
his own strength to convert himself, or to prepare himself for
When God converts a sinner, and translates him into a
state of grace, He frees him from his natural bondage to sin, and by
grace alone He enables him freely to will and to do that which is
spiritually good. But because of his remaining corruptions he does not
only (or perfectly) will that which is good, but also wills that which
is evil.
The will of man will only be made perfectly and immutably free to will good alone in the state of glory.
Back to Top

10. Effectual Calling

whom God has predestinated to life, He is pleased in His appointed and
accepted time to effectually call by His Word and Spirit, out of that
state of sin and death which they are in by nature, to grace and
salvation by Jesus Christ. He enlightens their minds spiritually and
savingly to understand the things of God. He takes away their heart of
stone and gives to them a heart of flesh. He renews their wills, and by
His almighty power, causes them to desire and pursue that which is
good. He effectually draws them to Jesus Christ, yet in such a way that
they come absolutely freely, being made willing by His grace.
effectual call is of God’s free and special grace alone, not on account
of anything at all foreseen in man. It is not made because of any power
or agency in the creature who is wholly passive in the matter. Man is
dead in sins and trespasses until quickened and renewed by the Holy
Spirit. By this he is enabled to answer the call, and to embrace the
grace offered and conveyed by it. This enabling power is no less power
than that which raised up Christ from the dead.
Infants dying in
infancy are regenerated and saved by Christ through the Spirit, Who
works when, where, and how He pleases. So also are all elect persons
who are incapable of being outwardly called by the ministry of the
Others are not elected, although they may be called by the
ministry of the Word, and may experience some common operations of the
Spirit, yet because they are not effectually drawn by the Father, they
will not and cannot truly come to Christ and therefore cannot be saved.
Much less can men who do not embrace the Christian religion be saved,
however diligent they may be to frame their lives according to the
light of nature and the requirements of the religion they profess.
Back to Top

11. Justification

whom God effectually calls He also freely justifies, not by infusing
righteousness into them, but by pardoning their sins, and by accounting
and accepting them as righteous, not for anything wrought in them, or
done by them, but for Christ’s sake alone. They are not justified
because God reckons as their righteousness either their faith, their
believing, or any other act of evangelical obedience. They are
justified wholly and solely because God imputes to them Christ’s
righteousness. He imputes to them Christ’s active obedience to the
whole law and His passive obedience in death. They receive Christ’s
righteousness by faith, and rest on Him. They do not possess or produce
this faith themselves, it is the gift of God.
Faith which receives
Christ’s righteousness and depends on Him is the sole instrument of
justification, yet this faith is not alone in the person justified, but
is always accompanied by all the other saving graces. And it is not a
dead faith, but works by love.
Christ, by His obedience and death,
fully discharged the debt of all those who are justified, and by the
sacrifice of himself through the blood of His cross, underwent instead
of them the penalty due to them, so making a proper, real, and full
satisfaction to God’s justice on their behalf. Yet because He was given
by the Father for them, and because His obedience and satisfaction was
accepted instead of theirs (and both freely, not because of anything in
them), therefore they are justified entirely and solely by free grace,
so that both the exact justice and the rich grace of God might be
glorified in the justification of sinners.
From all eternity God
decreed to justify all the elect, and Christ, in the fullness of time,
died for their sins, and rose again for their justification.
Nevertheless, they are not personally justified until the Holy Spirit,
in due time, actually applies Christ to them.
God continues to
forgive the sins of those who are justified, and although they can
never fall from the state of justification, yet they may because of
their sins, fall under God’s fatherly displeasure. In that condition
they will not usually have the light of God’s countenance restored to
them until they humble themselves, confess their sins, ask for pardon,
and renew their faith and repentance.
The justification of
believers during the Old Testament period was in all these respects
exactly the same as the justification of New Testament believers.
Back to Top

12. Adoption

has vouchsafed, that in Christ, His only Son, and for His sake, all
those who are justified shall be made partakers of the grace of
adoption, by which they are taken into the number of the children of
God and enjoy their liberties and privileges. They have His name put
upon them, and receive the Spirit of adoption. They have access to the
throne of grace with boldness, and are enabled to cry, ‘Abba, Father!’
They are pitied, protected, provided for, and chastened by Him as by a
father, yet they are never cast off, but are sealed to the day of
redemption, when they inherit the promises as heirs of everlasting
Back to Top

13. Sanctification

who are united to Christ, effectually called, and regenerated, having
had a new heart and a new spirit created in them through the virtue of
Christ’s death and resurrection, are then further sanctified in a very
real and personal way. Because of the virtue of Christ’s death and
resurrection. and by His Word and Spirit dwelling in them, the dominion
of the whole body of sin is destroyed. The different lusts of the body
of sin are increasingly weakened and mortified, and Christ’s people are
increasingly quickened and strengthened in all saving graces, to
practise all true holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord.
sanctification extends throughout the whole person, yet it remains
imperfect in this life. Some remnants of corruption live on in every
part, and from this arises a continuous war between irreconcilable
parties – the flesh lusting against the Spirit, and the Spirit against
the flesh.
In this war, although the remaining corruption for a
time may greatly prevail, yet through the continual supply of strength
from the sanctifying Spirit of Christ, the regenerate part overcomes.
And so the saints grow in grace perfecting holiness in the fear of God;
pressing after a heavenly life in evangelical obedience to all the
commands which Christ as Head and King, in His Word, has prescribed to
Back to Top

14. Saving Faith

grace of faith by which the elect are enabled to believe, so that their
souls are saved, is the work of the Spirit of Christ in their hearts,
and is ordinarily brought into being by the ministry of the Word. It is
also increased and strengthened by the work of the Spirit through the
ministry of the Word, and also by the administration of baptism and the
Lord’s Supper, prayer, and other means appointed by God.
By this
faith a Christian believes to be true whatever is revealed in the Word
because this Word has the authority of God Himself. Also, by this
saving faith, a Christian apprehends an excellency in the Word which is
higher than in all other writings and everything else in the world,
because the Word shows forth the glory of God, revealing His
attributes, showing the excellency of Christ’s nature and offices, and
also the power and fullness of the Holy Spirit in His workings and
operations. – So the Christian is enabled to cast his soul upon the
Truth he has believed, and to see and respond to the different kinds of
teaching which different passages of Scripture contain. Saving faith
equips him to perceive and obey the commands, hear the threatenings
with fear and respect, and to embrace the promises of God for this life
and the life to come. – But the first and most important acts of saving
faith are those directly to do with Christ, when the soul accepts,
receives, and rests upon Him alone for justification, sanctification
and eternal life, by virtue of the covenant of grace.
This faith,
although it differs in degree, and may be weak or strong, even at its
very weakest is in an entirely different class and has a different
nature (like other aspects of saving grace) from the kind of faith and
common grace which is possessed by temporary believers. Therefore,
though it may be frequently assailed and weakened, it gets the victory,
growing up in many to the attainment of a full assurance through
Christ, Who is both the author and finisher of our faith.
Back to Top

15. Repentance and Salvation

of the elect who are converted in riper years, having lived some time
in the state of nature, and in this state served various lusts and
pleasures, God gives repentance which leads to life, through an
effectual call.
Because there is not one person who does good and
commits no sin, and because the best of men may fall into great sins
and provocations through the power and deceitfulness of their own
indwelling corruption and the prevalency of temptation, God has
mercifully provided in the covenant of grace that when believers sin
and fall they shall be renewed through repentance to salvation.
repentance is an evangelical grace by which a person who is made to
feel, by the Holy Spirit, the manifold evils of his sin, and being
given faith in Christ, humbles himself over his sin with godly sorrow,
detestation of his sin and self-abhorrency. In such repentance the
person also prays for pardon and strength of grace, and has a purpose
and endeavour, by supplies of the Spirit’s power, to walk before God
and to totally please Him in all things.
As repentance is to be
continued through the whole course of our lives, on account of the body
of death, and the motions of it, it is therefore every man’s duty to
repent of his particular known sins particularly.
Such is the
provision which God has made through Christ in the covenant of grace
for the preservation of believers in the way of salvation, that
although even the smallest sin deserves damnation, yet there is no sin
great enough to bring damnation on those who repent. This makes the
constant preaching of repentance necessary.
Back to Top

16. Good Works

works are only those works which God has commanded in His Holy Word.
Works which do not have the warrant of Scripture, and are devised by
men out of blind zeal, or upon any pretence of good intentions are not
good works.
Good works, performed in obedience to God’s
commandments, are these: the fruits and evidences of a true and living
faith. By these believers express and show their thankfulness,
strengthen their assurance, edify their brethren, adorn the profession
of the Gospel, stop the mouths of the adversaries, and glorify God,
Whose workmanship they are; created in Christ Jesus to perform good
works, and to have fruits of holiness which lead to eternal life.
ability to do these good works does not in any way come from
themselves, but comes wholly from the Spirit of Christ. To enable them
to do good works, alongside the graces which they have already
received, it is necessary for there to be a further real influence of
the same Holy Spirit to cause them to will and to do of His good
pleasure. But believers are not, on these grounds, to grow negligent,
as if they were not bound to perform any duty unless given a special
motion by the Spirit, but they must be diligent in stirring up the
grace of God that is in them.
Those who attain the greatest height
which is possible in this life in their obedience to God, are still so
far from being able to supererogate, and to do more than God requires,
that they fall short of much which they are bound to do in their duty
to God.
We cannot by our best works merit pardon of sin or eternal
life from the hand of God because of the great disproportion between
our best works and the glory to come, and because of the infinite
distance which is between us and God. With our works we cannot profit
or satisfy God concerning the debt we owe on account of our sins. When
we have done all we can, we have only done our duty, and are still
unprofitable servants. And in any case, in so far as our works are good
they originate from the work of the Holy Spirit. Even then, the good
works are so defiled by us, and so mixed with weakness and
imperfection, that they could not survive the severity of God’s
Yet, quite apart from the fact that believers are
accepted through Christ as individual souls, their good works are also
accepted through Christ. It is not as though the believers are (in this
life) wholly unblameable and unreprovable in God’s sight, but because
He looks upon them in His Son, and is pleased to accept and reward that
which is sincere, although it is accompanied with many weaknesses and
Works performed by unregenerate men, although they
may in essence be things which God commands, and they may be good and
beneficial both to themselves and others, yet because they do not
proceed from a heart purified by faith, and are not done in a right
manner according to the Word, and because it is not their underlying
purpose to bring glory to God, therefore they are sinful, and cannot
please God, nor can they make a man fit to receive grace from God. And
yet, for unregenerate men to neglect such works is even more sinful and
displeasing to God.
Back to Top

17. The Perseverance of the Saints

whom God has accepted in the beloved, and has effectually called and
sanctified by His Spirit, and given the precious faith of His elect,
can neither totally nor finally fall from the state of grace, but they
will certainly persevere in that state to the end and be eternally
saved. This is because the gifts and calling of God are without
repentance, and therefore He continues to beget and nourish in them
faith, repentance, love, joy, hope, and all the graces of the spirit
which lead to immortality. And though many storms and floods arise and
beat against the saints, yet these things shall never be able to sweep
them off the foundation and rock which they are fastened upon by faith.
Even though, through unbelief and the temptations of Satan, the sight
and feeling of the light and love of God may for a time be clouded and
obscured from them, yet God is still the same, and they are sure to be
kept by His power until their salvation is complete, when they shall
enjoy the purchased possession which is theirs, for they are engraved
upon the palm of His hands, and their names have been written in His
Book of Life from all eternity.
This perseverance of the saints
does not depend on them – that is, on their own free will. It rests
upon the immutability of the decree of election, which flows from the
free and unchangeable love of God the Father. It also rests upon the
efficacy of the merit and intercession of Jesus Christ, and upon the
union which true saints have with Him. – It rests upon the oath of God,
and upon the abiding of His Spirit. – It depends upon the seed of God
being within them and upon the very nature of the covenant of grace.
– All these factors give rise to the certainty and infallibility of the security and perseverance of the saints.
saints may, through the temptation of Satan and the world, and because
their remaining sinful tendencies prevail over them, and through their
neglect of the means which God has provided to keep them, fall into
grievous sins. They may continue in this state for some time, so that
they incur God’s displeasure, grieve His Holy Spirit, suffer the
impairment of their graces and comforts, have their hearts hardened and
their conscience wounded, and hurt and scandalise others. By this they
will bring temporal judgements upon themselves. Yet they shall renew
their repentance and be preserved, through faith in Christ Jesus, to
the end.
Back to Top

18. Assurance of Salvation

temporary believers, and other unregenerate men, may vainly deceive
themselves with false hopes and carnal presumptions that they are in
the favour of God and in a state of salvation, such a hope on their
part will perish. Yet those who truly believe in the Lord Jesus, and
love Him in sincerity, and who endeavour to walk in all good conscience
before Him, may be certainly assured in this life that they are in the
state of grace, and may rejoice in the hope of the glory of God. And
such a hope shall never make them ashamed.
This assurance is not
merely a conjectural persuasion nor even a probable persuasion based
upon a fallible hope. It is an infallible assurance of faith founded on
the blood and righteousness of Christ revealed in the Gospel. It is
also founded upon the inward evidence of those graces of the Spirit in
connection with definite promises made in the Scriptures, and also on
the testimony of the Spirit of adoption who witnesses with our spirits
that we are the children of God, and who uses the experience of
assurance to keep our hearts both humble and holy.
This infallible
assurance is not so joined to the essence of faith that it is an
automatic and inevitable experience. A true believer may wait long and
fight with many difficulties before he becomes a partaker of it. Yet,
being enabled by the spirit to know the things which are freely given
to him by God, he may, without any extraordinary revelation attain this
assurance by using the means of grace in the right way. Therefore it is
the duty of every one to give the utmost diligence to make his calling
and election sure, so that his heart may be enlarged in peace and joy
in the Holy Spirit, in love and thankfulness to God, and in strength
and cheerfulness for carrying out the duties of obedience. These duties
are the natural fruits of assurance, for it is far from inclining men
to slackness.
True believers may have the assurance of their
salvation in various ways shaken, diminished, or intermitted. This may
be because of their negligence in preserving it, or by their falling
into some special sin which wounds the conscience and grieves the
Spirit, or by some sudden or forceful temptation, or by God’s
withdrawing the light of His countenance, and causing even those who
fear Him to walk in darkness and to have no light. Yet, believers are
never left without the seed of God and life of faith, that love of
Christ and the brethren that sincerity of heart and that conscience
about their spiritual duty. Out of these things, by the operation of
the Spirit, their assurance can in due time be revived, and in the
meantime the presence of these graces preserves them from utter
Back to Top

19. The Law of God

gave to Adam a law of universal obedience which was written in his
heart, and He gave him very specific instruction about not eating the
fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. By this Adam and all
his descendants were bound to personal, total, exact, and perpetual
obedience, being promised life upon the fulfilling of the law, and
threatened with death upon the breach of it. At the same time Adam was
endued with power and ability to keep it.
The same law that was
first written in the heart of man continued to be a perfect rule of
righteousness after the Fall, and was delivered by God upon Mount Sinai
in the ten commandments, and written in two tables, the first four
containing our duty towards God, and the other six, our duty to man.
this law, commonly called the moral law, God was pleased do give the
people of Israel ceremonial laws containing several typical ordinances.
These ordinances were partly about their worship, and in them Christ
was prefigured along with His attributes and qualities, His actions,
His sufferings and His benefits. These ordinances also gave
instructions about different moral duties. All of these ceremonial laws
were appointed only until the time of reformation, when Jesus Christ
the true Messiah and the only lawgiver, Who was furnished with power
from the Father for this end, cancelled them and took them away.
the people of Israel He also gave sundry judicial laws which expired
when they ceased to be a nation. These are not binding on anyone now by
virtue of their being part of the laws of that nation, but their
general equity continue to be applicable in modern times.
moral law ever binds to obedience everyone, justified people as well as
others, and not only out of regard for the matter contained in it, but
also out of respect for the authority of God the Creator, Who gave the
law. Nor does Christ in the Gospel dissolve this law in any way, but He
considerably strengthens our obligation to obey it.
Although true
believers are not under the law as a covenant of works, to be justified
or condemned by it, yet it is of great use to them as well as to
others, because as a rule of life it informs them of the will of God
and their duty and directs and binds them to walk accordingly. It also
reveals and exposes the sinful pollutions of their natures, hearts and
lives, and using it for self-examination they may come to greater
conviction of sin, greater humility and greater hatred of their sin.
They will also gain a clearer sight of their need of Christ and the
perfection of His own obedience. It is of further use to regenerate
people to restrain their corruptions, because of the way in which it
forbids sin. The threatenings of the law serve to show what their sins
actually deserve, and what troubles may be expected in this life
because of these sins even by regenerate people who are freed from the
curse and undiminished rigours of the law. The promises connected with
the law also show believers God’s approval of obedience, and what
blessings they may expect when the law is kept and obeyed, though
blessing will not come to them because they have satisfied the law as a
covenant of works. If a man does good and refrains from evil simply
because the law encourages to the good and deters him from the evil,
that is no evidence that he is under the law rather than under grace.
aforementioned uses of the law are not contrary to the grace of the
Gospel, but they sweetly comply with it, as the Spirit of Christ
subdues and enables the will of man to do freely and cheerfully those
things which the will of God, which is revealed in the law, requires to
be done.
Back to Top

20. The Gospel and Its Influence

covenant of works being broken by sin, and made unprofitable for life,
God was pleased to promise Christ, the seed of the woman, as the means
of calling the elect and bringing to life within them faith and
repentance. In this promise the substance of the Gospel was revealed
and shown to be the effectual for the conversion and salvation of
This promise of Christ and the salvation which comes by
Him, is revealed only by the Word of God. The works of creation and
providence with the light of nature do not reveal Christ or His grace
even in a general or obscure way. How much less, therefore, can those
who are devoid of the revelation of Christ by the promise (or the
Gospel) be enabled by the light of nature to arrive at saving faith or
The revelation of the Gospel unto sinners, made in
divers times and by sundry parts, with the addition of promises and
precepts for the obedience required therein, as to the nations and
persons to whom it is granted, is merely of the sovereign will and good
pleasure of God, not being annexed by virtue of any promise to the due
improvement of men’s natural abilities, by virtue of common light
received without it, which none ever did make, or can do so; and
therefore in all ages, the preaching of the Gospel has been granted
unto persons and nations, as to the extent or straitening of it, in
great variety, according to the counsel of the will of God.
the Gospel is the only outward means of revealing Christ and saving
grace, and as such is totally sufficient to accomplish this, yet more
is necessary if men who are dead in trespasses are to be born again,
brought to life or regenerated. It is necessary for there to be an
effectual, insuperable work of the Holy Spirit upon the whole soul to
produce in them a new spiritual life. Without this no other means will
bring about their conversion to God.
Back to Top

21. Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience

liberty which Christ has purchased for believers under the Gospel, lies
in their freedom from the guilt of sin and the condemning wrath of God,
from the rigours and curse of the law, and in their deliverance from
this present evil world, from bondage to Satan, from dominion of sin,
from the harm of afflictions, from the fear and sting of death, from
the victory of the grave, and from everlasting damnation. – This
liberty is also seen in their free access to God, and their ability to
yield obedience to Him not out of slavish fear, but with childlike love
and willing minds. All these freedoms were also experienced in
substance by true believers under the Old Testament law, but for New
Testament Christians this liberty is further enlarged, for they have
freedom from the yoke of the ceremonial law to which the Jewish church
was subjected. They also have greater boldness of access to the throne
of grace and fuller communications of the free Spirit of God than
believers under the law normally experienced.
God alone is Lord of
the conscience, and has left it free from all doctrines and
commandments of men which are in any respect contrary to His Word, or
not contained in it. Thus to believe such doctrines or to obey such
commands out of conscience, is to betray true liberty of conscience.
The requiring of an implicit faith, an absolute and blind obedience, is
to destroy liberty of conscience and reason also.
They who on
pretence of Christian liberty practice any sin, or cherish any sinful
lust, pervert the main purpose of the grace of the Gospel to their own
destruction. They completely destroy the object of Christian liberty,
which is that we, being delivered out of the hands of all our enemies,
might serve the Lord without fear, in holiness and righteousness before
Him, all the days of our lives.
Back to Top

22. Worship and the Sabbath Day

light of nature shows that there is a God Who has lordship and
sovereignty over all, is just and good, and Who does good to all.
Therefore He is to be feared, loved, praised, called upon, trusted in,
and served, with all the heart and all the soul, and with all the
might. But the acceptable way of worshipping the true God has been
instituted by Himself, and therefore our method of worship is limited
by His own revealed will. He may not be worshipped according to the
imagination and devices of men, nor the suggestions of Satan. He may
not be worshipped by way of visible representations, or by any other
way not prescribed in the Holy Scriptures.
Worship is to be given
to God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and to Him alone; not to
angels, saints, or any other creatures. And since the Fall, worship is
not to be given without a mediator, nor by any other mediation than
that of Christ.
Prayer, with thanksgiving, is one part of natural
worship, and this God requires of all men. But to be accepted it must
be made in the name of the Son, by the help of the Spirit, and
according to His will. It must be made with understanding, reverence,
humility, fervency, faith, love, and perseverance; and corporate prayer
must be made in a known language.
Prayer is to be made for lawful
things, and for all kinds of people who are alive now or who shall live
in the future, but not for the dead, nor for those who are known to
have sinned the ‘sin leading to death’.
The reading of the
Scriptures, preaching and hearing the Word of God, the teaching and
admonishing of one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs,
singing with grace in our hearts to the Lord; as well as the
administration of baptism and the Lord’s Supper, are all parts of the
worship of God. These are to be performed in obedience to Him, with
understanding, faith, reverence and godly fear. Also to be used in a
holy and reverent manner on special occasions are times of solemn
humiliation, fastings, and thanksgivings.
Under the Gospel neither
prayer nor any other part of religious worship is tied to, or made more
acceptable by, any place in which it is performed or towards which it
is directed. God is to be worshipped everywhere in spirit and in truth,
whether in private families daily, in secret by each individual, or
solemnly in the public assemblies. These are not to be carelessly or
wilfully neglected or forsaken, when God by His Word and providence
calls us to them.
As it is the law of nature that in general a
proportion of time, by God’s appointment, should be set apart for the
worship of God, so He has given in His Word a positive, moral and
perpetual commandment, binding upon all men, in all ages to this
effect. He has particularly appointed one day in seven for a Sabbath to
be kept holy for Him. From the beginning of the world to the
resurrection of Christ this was the last day of the week, and from the
resurrection of Christ it was changed to the first day of the week and
called the Lord’s Day. This is to be continued until the end of the
world as the Christian Sabbath, the observation of the last day of the
week having been abolished.
The Sabbath is kept holy to the Lord
by those who, after the necessary preparation of their hearts and prior
arranging of their common affairs, observe all day a holy rest from
their own works, words and thoughts about their worldly employment and
recreations, and give themselves over to the public and private acts of
worship for the whole time, and to carrying out duties of necessity and
Back to Top

23. Lawful Oaths and Vows

lawful oath is an act of religious worship, in which the person
swearing in truth, righteousness, and judgement, solemnly calls God to
witness what he swears, and to judge him according to the truth or
falsity of it.
Only by the name of God can a righteous oath be
sworn, and only if it is used with the utmost fear of God and
reverence. Therefore, to swear vainly or rashly by the glorious and
awesome name of God, or to swear by any other name or thing, is sinful,
and to be regarded with disgust and detestation. But in matters of
weight and moment, for the confirmation of truth, and for the ending of
strife, an oath is sanctioned by the Word of God. Therefore a lawful
oath being imposed by a lawful authority can rightly be taken in such
Whoever takes an oath sanctioned by the Word of God
is bound to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and affirm or
confess to nothing except that which he knows to be true. For by rash,
false, and vain oaths, the Lord is provoked and because of them this
land mourns.
An oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of the words. without equivocation or mental reservation.
vow, which is not to be made to any creature but to God alone, is to be
made and performed with all the utmost care and faithfulness. But
monastical vows (as in the Church of Rome) of a perpetual single life,
professed poverty, and regular obedience, so far from being degrees of
higher perfection, are superstitious and sinful snares, in which no
Christian may entangle himself.
Back to Top

24. The Civil Magistrate

the supreme Lord and King of all the world, has ordained civil
magistrates to be under Him, over the people, for His own glory and the
public good. For this purpose He has armed them with the power of the
sword, agement of those that do good, and for the punishment of
It is lawful for Christians to accept and carry out
the duties of a magistrate when called upon. In the performance of such
office they are particularly responsible for maintaining justice and
peace by application of the right and beneficial laws of the nation.
Also, to maintain justice and peace, they may lawfully (under the New
Testament) engage in war if it is just and essential.
civil magistrates are established by God for the purposes previously
defined, we ought to be subject to all their lawful commands as part of
our obedience to God, not only to avoid punishment, but for conscience
sake. We ought also to make supplications and prayers for rulers and
all that are in authority, that under them we may live a quiet and
peaceable life, in all godliness and honesty.
Back to Top

25. Marriage

is to be between one man and one woman. It is not lawful for any man to
have more than one wife, nor for any woman to have more than one
husband, at the same time.
Marriage was ordained for the mutual
help of husband and wife, for the increase of mankind with a legitimate
issue, and for preventing uncleanness.
It is lawful for all sorts
of people to marry if they are able with judgement to give their
consent. But it is the duty of Christians to marry in the Lord, and
therefore those who profess the true religion should not marry with
infidels or idolaters. Nor should those who are godly be unequally
yoked by marrying with those who are wicked in their life or who
maintain heretical teaching condemned to judgement.
Marriage ought
not to be within the degrees of consanguinity or affinity forbidden in
the Word, nor can such incestuous marriages ever be made lawful by any
law of man or consent of parties so that such persons may live together
as man and wife.
Back to Top

26. The Church

universal Church, which may be called invisible (in respect of the
internal work of the Spirit and truth of grace) consists of the entire
number of the elect, all those who have been, who are, or who shall be
gathered into one under Christ, Who is the Head. This universal Church
is the wife, the body, the fullness of Him Who fills all in all.
people throughout the world who profess the faith of the Gospel and
obedience to Christ on its terms, and who do not destroy their
profession by any errors which contradict or overthrow Gospel
fundamentals, or by unholy behaviour, are visible saints and may be
regarded as such. All individual congregations ought to be constituted
of such people.
The purest churches under Heaven are subject to
mixture and error, and some have degenerated so much that they have
ceased to be churches of Christ and have become synagogues of Satan.
Nevertheless Christ always has had, and always will (to the end of
time) have a kingdom in this world, made up of those who believe in
Him, and make profession of His name.
The Lord Jesus Christ is the
Head of the Church. In Him, by the appointment of the Father, is vested
in a supreme and sovereign manner all power for the calling,
institution, order, or government of the Church. The Pope of Rome
cannot in any sense be head of the Church, but he is that antichrist,
that man of sin, and son of perdition, who exalts himself in the church
against Christ and all that is called God, who the Lord shall destroy
with the brightness of His coming.
In the exercise of the
authority which has been entrusted to Him, the Lord Jesus calls to
Himself from out of the world, through the ministry of His Word, by His
Spirit, those who are given to Him by His Father, so that they may walk
before Him in all the ways of obedience which He prescribes to them in
His Word. Those who are thus called, He commands to walk together in
particular societies or churches, for their mutual edification, and for
the due performance of that public worship, which He requires of them
in the world.
The members of these churches are saints because
they have been called by Christ, and because they visibly manifest and
give evidence of their obedience to that call by their profession and
walk. Such saints willingly consent to walk together according to the
appointment of Christ, giving themselves up to the Lord and to one
another, according to God’s will, in avowed subjection to the
ordinances of the Gospel.
To each of these churches thus gathered,
according to the Lord’s mind as declared in His Word, He has given all
the power and authority which is in any way required for them to carry
on the order of worship and discipline which He has instituted for them
to observe. He has also given all the commands and rules for the due
and right exercise of this power.
A particular church gathered and
completely organised according to the mind of Christ, consists of
officers and members. The officers appointed by Christ to be chosen and
set apart by the church are bishops or elders and deacons. These are to
be appointed for the peculiar administration of ordinances and the
execution of power or duty with which the Lord has entrusted them and
to which He has called them. This pattern of church order is to be
continued to the end of the world.
The way appointed by Christ for
the calling of any person fitted and gifted by the Holy Spirit for the
office of bishop or elder in a church, is that he is to be chosen by
the common consent and vote of the church itself. Such a person should
be solemnly set apart by fasting and prayer, with the laying on of
hands of the eldership of the church (if there be any previously
appoint elder or elders). The way of Christ for the calling of a deacon
is that he is also to be chosen by the common consent and vote of the
church and set apart by prayer, with the laying on of hands.
the work of pastors is to apply themselves constantly to the service of
Christ in His churches by the ministry of the Word and prayer, and by
watching for their souls as they that must give an account to Him, the
churches to which they minister have a pressing obligation to give them
not only all due respect, but also to impart to them a share of all
their good things, according to their ability. This must be so done
that the pastors may have a comfortable supply and that they may not
have to be entangled in secular affairs, and may also be able to
exercise hospitality towards others. All this is required by the law of
nature and by the express command of our Lord Jesus, Who has ordained
that they that preach the Gospel should live by the Gospel.
an obligation lies on the elders or pastors of the churches to be
urgently preaching the Word by virtue of their office, yet the work of
preaching the Word is not exclusively confined to them. Therefore
others who are also gifted and qualified by the Holy Spirit for the
task, and who are approved and called by the church, may and ought to
perform it.
All believers are bound to join themselves to
particular churches when and where they have opportunity so to do, and
all who are admitted into the privileges of a church, are also under
the censures and government of that church, in accordance with the rule
of Christ.
No church members, because of any offence which has
been given them by a fellow member, once they have performed their
prescribed duty towards the person who has caused the offence, may
disturb church order in anyway, or be absent from the meetings of the
church or the administration of any ordinances on account of any such
offence. On the contrary, they are to wait upon Christ in the further
proceedings of the church.
Each church and all its members are
obligated to pray constantly for the good and prosperity of all
Christ’s churches everywhere, and to help forward everyone who comes
into their district or calling, by the exercise of their gifts and
graces. It clearly follows that when churches are planted by the
goodness of God they ought also to hold fellowship among themselves to
promote peace, increasing love and mutual edification as and when they
enjoy an opportunity to do so to their advantage.
In cases of
difficulties or differences, either in matters of doctrine or
administration, which concern the churches in general or any single
church, and which affects their peace, union, and edification, or when
any members of a church are injured because of any disciplinary
proceedings not consistent with the Word and correct order, it is
according to the mind of Christ, that many churches holding communion
together do, through their appointed messengers meet to consider, and
give their advice about the matter in dispute, and to report to all the
churches concerned. However, when these messengers are assembled, they
are not entrusted with any real church power, or with any jurisdiction
over the churches involved in the problem. They cannot exercise any
censure over any churches or persons, or impose their determination on
the churches or their officers.
Back to Top

27. The Communion of Saints

saints who are united to Jesus Christ, their Head, by His Spirit, and
by faith, although they are not by this made one person with Him, have
fellowship in His graces, sufferings, death, resurrection, and glory.
Also, being united to one another in love, they have communion in each
other’s gifts and graces, and are obligated to the orderly performance
of such public and private duties as lead to their mutual good, both in
the inward and outward man.
Saints, by their profession are bound
to maintain a holy fellowship and communion in the worship of God and
in performing such other spiritual services as advance their mutual
edification. They are also to give relief to each other in outward
things according to their different needs and abilities to meet them.
This communion or fellowship, though chiefly exercised by saints in
their immediate circle of fellow believers such as families, and
churches, is also to be extended (according to the rule of the Gospel)
to all the household of faith, as God gives the opportunity. This means
all those who in every place call upon the name of the Lord Jesus,
However, their communion with one another as saints does not take away
or infringe the personal ownership which each man has of his goods and
Back to Top

28. Baptism and the Lord’s Supper

and the Lord’s Supper are ordinances of positive and sovereign
institution, appointed by the Lord Jesus, the only lawgiver, to be
continued in His Church to the end of the world.
These holy
appointments are to be administered only by those who are qualified and
called to administer them, according to the commission of Christ.
Back to Top

29. Baptism

is an ordinance of the New Testament, ordained by Jesus Christ, to be
to the person who is baptised – a sign of his fellowship with Christ in
His death and resurrection; of his being engrafted into Christ; of
remission of sins; and of that person’s giving up of himself to God,
through Jesus Christ, to live and walk in newness of life.
who actually profess repentance towards God, faith in, and obedience
to, our Lord Jesus Christ, are the only proper subjects for this
The outward element to be used in this ordinance is
water, in which the person is to be baptised in the name of the Father,
and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.
Immersion – the dipping of the person in water – is necessary for the due administration of this ordinance.
Back to Top

30. The Lord’s Supper

Supper of the Lord Jesus was instituted by Him the same night on which
He was betrayed to be observed in His churches until the end of the
world for the perpetual remembrance, and showing forth of the sacrifice
of Himself in His death. It was also instituted by Christ to confirm
believers in all the benefits of His death; – for their spiritual
nourishment and growth in Him; – for their further engagement in and
commitment to all the duties which they owe to Him; – and to be a bond
and pledge of their communion with Him and with their fellow believers.

In this ordinance Christ is not offered up to His Father, nor is
there any real sacrifice made at all for remission of sin (of the
living or the dead). There is only a memorial of that one offering up
of Christ by Himself upon the cross once for all, the memorial being
accompanied by a spiritual oblation of all possible praise to God for
Calvary. Therefore, the popish sacrifice of the mass, as they call it,
is most abominable, being injurious to Christ’s own sacrifice, which is
the only propitiation for all the sins of the elect.
The Lord
Jesus has, in this ordinance, appointed His ministers to pray and bless
the elements of bread and wine (so setting them apart from a common to
a holy use) and to take and break the bread, then to take the cup, and
to give both to the communicants, also communicating themselves.
denial of the cup to the people, the practices of worshipping the
elements, lifting them up or carrying them about for adoration, or
reserving them for any pretended religious use, are all contrary to the
nature of this ordinance, and to the institution of Christ.
outward elements in this ordinance which are correctly set apart and
used as Christ ordained, so closely portray Him as crucified, that they
are sometimes truly (but figuratively) referred to in terms of the
things they represent, such as the body and blood of Christ. However in
substance and nature they still remain truly and only bread and wine as
they were before.
The doctrine commonly called transubstantiation,
which maintains that a change occurs in the substance of the bread and
wine into the substance of Christ’s body and blood, when consecrated by
a priest or by any other way, is repugnant not only to Scripture but
even to common sense and reason. It overthrows the nature of the
ordinance, and both has been and is the cause of a host of
superstitions and of gross idolatries.
Worthy receivers, outwardly
taking the visible elements in this ordinance, also receive them
inwardly and spiritually by faith, truly and in fact, but not carnally
and corporally, and feed upon Christ crucified, and all the benefits of
His death. The body and blood of Christ is not present corporally or
carnally but it is spiritually present to the faith of believers in the
ordinance, just as the elements are present to their outward senses.
ignorant and ungodly persons who are unfit to enjoy communion with
Christ are equally unworthy of the Lord’s Table, and therefore cannot
without great sin against Him, take a share in these holy mysteries or
be admitted to the Supper while they remain in that condition. Indeed
those who receive (the elements) unworthily, are guilty of the body and
blood of the Lord, eating and drinking judgement to themselves.
Back to Top

31. Man’s State After Death and the Resurrection

bodies of men after death return to dust, and undergo corruption, but
their souls, which neither die nor sleep, having an immortal
subsistence, immediately return to God Who gave them. The souls of the
righteous are then made perfect in holiness, are received into paradise
where they are with Christ, and look upon the face of God in light and
glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies. The souls of
the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torment and under
darkness, reserved to the judgement of the great day. The Scripture
acknowledges no other place than these two for souls separated from
their bodies.

At the last day, those of the saints who are still
alive shall not sleep but shall be changed. And all the dead shall be
raised up with their own, same bodies, and none other, although with
different qualities, and these bodies shall be united again to their
souls for ever.

The bodies of the unjust shall, by the power of
Christ, be raised to dishonour. The bodies of the just shall, by His
Spirit be raised to honour, and made conformable to His own glorious

Back to Top

The Last Judgement

has appointed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness,
by Jesus Christ, to Whom all power and judgement is given by the
Father. In this day not only the apostate angels shall be judged, but
also all people who have lived upon the earth. They shall appear before
the tribunal of Christ to give an account of their thoughts, words, and
deeds, and to receive according to what they have done when in the
body, whether good or evil.
The end of God’s appointing this day
is for the manifestation of the glory of His mercy in the eternal
salvation of the elect, and also His justice, in the eternal damnation
of the reprobate, who are wicked and disobedient. Then shall the
righteous go into everlasting life and receive that fullness of joy and
glory with everlasting reward in the presence of the Lord. But the
wicked, who know not God and obey not the Gospel of Jesus Christ, shall
be cast aside into everlasting torments, and punished with everlasting
destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His
As Christ would have us to be certainly persuaded that
there will be a day of judgement, both to deter all men from sin and to
give greater consolation to the godly in their adversity, so also He
will have the date of that day kept unknown to men, that they may shake
off all carnal security, and always be watchful, because they know not
at what hour the Lord will come. Also, so that men may be affected in
such a way that they ever say, ‘Come Lord Jesus, come quickly!’ Amen.
Back to Top